Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus pars interna in advanced Parkinson's disease
Kumar R. (1), Lang A.E. (1), Rodríguez-Oroz M.C. (2), Lozano A.M. (1), Limousin P. (3), Pollak P. (3), Benabid A.L. (3), Guridi J. (4), Ramos E. (4), Van Der Linden C. (5), Vandewalle A. (5), Caemaert J. (5), Lannoo E. (5), Van Den Abbeele D. (5), Vingerhoets G. (5), Wolters M. (5), Obeso J. A. (2)
(1) Division of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Toronto Medical School Toronto, Ontario, CANADA
(2) Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Center, Clínica Universitaria and Medical School, University Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
(3) Service of Neurosurgery and Neurology, CHRV, Grenoble, France
(4) Clínica Quirón, San Sebastián, Spain
(5) Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Begium
Pallidotomy is now widely performed for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Preliminary reports of the effect of globus pallidus pars interna deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) have also been promising. We have analyzed a cohort of 22 consecutive patients enrolled in a multicenter study.
Surgery was bilateral in 17 and unilateral in five patients. At 6-month follow-up, the bilaterally GPi-implanted patients demonstrated a marked improvement when examined after drug withdrawal ("off") and under optimal medication ("on") using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The benefit induced by the stimulation in the "off" medication condition in the total motor score was 31% and in the activities of daily living (ADL) scores was 39%. During the "on" medication period, the reduction in the total "on" dyskinesias score was 66% and in the ADL score was 32%.
A similar pattern of improvement was seen in the group of patients with unilateral GPi stimulation, although a second cohort of 12 patients not included in the multicenter study showed greater improvements in "on" motor functioning. Although the effect of DBS is predominantly reversible, electrode insertion alone resulted in measurable clinical effects in the absence of stimulation. Thus, at 6-month follow-up, the benefit observed without stimulation was up to 44% in the "on" dyskinesias score and 29% in timed tapping scores undertaken in the "off" medication state. Complications among 34 patients from all centers included perioperative infection (n=3), hardware fracture (n=2), and premature battery failure (n=3).
These results show a positive antiparkinsonian effect of pallidal DBS. No specific complications were observed with bilateral procedures.
CITATION Neurology. 2000;55(12 Suppl 6):S34-9