Scientific publications

Cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab compared with photodynamic treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Hernandez-Pastor LJ, Ortega A, Garcia-Layana A, Giraldez J.
Department of Pharmacy, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain

Magazine: Clinical Therapeutics

Date: Dec 1, 2008

Ophthalmology Pharmacy [SP]

This study compared the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab with that of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of predominantly classic choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) from the perspective of a third-party payer in a Spanish setting.

We constructed a Markov model with 5 states defined by visual acuity (VA) in the better-seeing eye (Snellen scale), as follows: VA >20/40, <or=20/40 to >20/80, </or20/80 to >20/200, <or=20/200 to >20/400, and <or=20/400. A death state was also included. We took transition probabilities, number of ranibizumab injections, and number of PDT treatments from the ANCHOR (Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antibody for the Treatment of Predominantly Classic Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration) trial. Utilities were taken from a published study of patients' preferences. We used unit costs from our hospital and drug costs from a national database. Resource utilization was determined by an ophthalmologist according to current clinical practice. We performed univariate, threshold, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Incremental costs (2007 euro) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), both discounted at a 3% annual rate, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; euro/QALY) were determined for the 2-year and life-expectancy time horizons.

Treating patients with varying degrees of visual impairment with ranibizumab instead of PDT, with a 2-year time horizon, was found to be euro18,328 more costly and to confer 0.140 additional QALY (euro131,275/QALY). This ICER was reduced to euro39,398/ QALY for the longer life-expectancy time horizon. According to the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, PDT is the therapy of choice in all cases below the threshold of euro30,000/QALY for the 2-year time horizon. Ranibizumab was the optimal intervention in 26% of cases in the longer lifetime horizon. When the initial VA was <or=20/400, the ICER increased to euro255,477 over 2 years. When ranibizumab was administered on an as-needed basis, as in the PrONTO (Prospective Optical coherence tomography imaging of patients with Neovascular AMD Treated with intra-Ocular ranibizumab) trial, the ICERs were reduced to euro29,566/QALY and euro11,469/QALY in the 2-year and life-expectancy horizons, respectively.

Based on these results, ranibizumab was not cost-effective when administered on a monthly basis. When administered as needed, ranibizumab was cost-effective compared with PDT for the treatment of AMD.

CITATION  Clin Ther. 2008 Dec;30(12):2436-51



The Clínica is the greater private hospital with technological equipment of Spain, all in a single center.

Imagen de un PET, tecnología de vanguardia en la Clínica Universidad de Navarra


The professionals of the Clínica perform continuous research and training, always to the benefit of the patient.

Imagen profesionales de la Clínica Universidad de Navarra


Learn why we are different from other healthcare centers. Quality, speed, comfort and results.

Imagen del edificio de la Clínica Universidad de Navarra