Clinical and Neuropsychological Predictors of Methylphenidate Response in Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Naturalistic Follow-up Study in a Spanish Sample
María Vallejo-Valdivielso 1 2 , Pilar de Castro-Manglano 3 2 , Azucena Díez-Suárez 1 2 , Juan J Marín-Méndez 4 , Cesar A Soutullo 1 3 2
Background: Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly used medication for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but to date, there are neither consistent nor sufficient findings on conditions differentiating responsiveness to MPH response in ADHD.
Objective: To develop a predictive model of MPH response, using a longitudinal and naturalistic follow-up study, in a Spanish sample of children and adolescents with ADHD.
Methods: We included all children and adolescents with ADHD treated with MPH in our outpatient Clinic (2005 to 2015), evaluated with the K-SADS interview. We collected ADHD-RS-IV.es and CGI-S scores at baseline and at follow up, and neuropsychological testing (WISC-IV, Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II) & Stroop). Clinical response was defined as >30% reduction from baseline of total ADHD-RS-IV.es score and CGI-S final score of 1 or 2 maintained for the previous 3 months.
Results: We included 518 children and adolescents with ADHD, mean (SD) age of patients was 11.4 (3.3) years old; 79% male; 51.7% had no comorbidities; and 75.31% had clinical response to a mean MPH dose of 1.2 mg/kg/day. Lower ADHD-RS-IV.es scores, absence of comorbidities (oppositional-defiant symptoms, depressive symptoms and alcohol/cannabis use), fewer altered neuropsychological tests, higher total IQ and low commission errors in CPT-II, were significantly associated with a complete clinical response to methylphenidate treatment.
Conclusion: Oppositional-defiant symptoms, depressive symptoms, and a higher number of impaired neuropsychological tests are associated with worse clinical response to methylphenidate. Other stimulants or non-stimulants treatment may be considered when these clinical and neuropsychological variables converged in the first clinical interview.
CITA DEL ARTÍCULO Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2019 Dec 31;15:160-171. doi: 10.2174/1745017901915010160. eCollection 2019.