Genes and cancer
"This is a field in full expansion and continuous renewal, so it is important to go to centers where you have the knowledge of the newest treatments approved today and the tools to evaluate the response to them".
DR. ANA PATIÑO GARCÍA
DIRECTOR. GENOMIC MEDICINE UNIT
Genome sequencing not only gives a more complete picture, but also provides you with a resource that you can consult again and again, helping you to improve and change your life.
- Information on more than 650 diseases of genetic origin based on the analysis of 566 genes.
- More comprehensive analysis of cardiovascular disease and cancer risk.
- Information on 15 multifactorial diseases included in the "Risks" section of the report.
- Information on more than 225 diseases of which you can be a carrier, that is, you can transmit to your children.
- Information on how your body reacts to more than 300 drugs based on your genetics.
- Information about more than 50 genetic traits related to diet, athletics, longevity, nutrition, behavior, cardiovascular health, metabolism and the immune system.
- Encryption, anonymization and high security storage of your genetic information.
- Information about your ancestors.
Do you need a remote second opinion?
Our professionals will provide you with a medical evaluation without you having to leave your home.
A leap of precision: from preventive to predictive medicine
The Clinic, leader in medical check-ups, launches the most accurate predictive medicine thanks to the combination of medical check-up and genetic analysis.
When is the genetic study performed?
The data stored in the genome is structured into information units called genes, which contain what is needed to make at least one protein from each gene.
The cell, for its normal functioning, needs to manufacture a large number of proteins with very diverse functions that will maintain the cell structure, obtain energy from nutrients, exercise the function for which it is intended, initiate cell division when it is necessary as well as initiate a process of cell death in certain situations.
This is achieved by obtaining the amount and type of specific proteins from the appropriate genes in each moment of cell life.
The most common symptoms are:
- Breast cancer.
- Thyroid cancer.
- Gastric cancer.
- Ovarian cancer.
- Colon cancer.
Do you have any risk factors?
You can benefit from a genetic analysis
When is there a genetic predisposition?
Firstly, it should be noted that when this predisposition exists, the age of appearance of the tumours is usually very early, generally before 40-45 years of age.
In the vast majority of cases, it occurs in family settings where the incidence of cancer is very high, and people from several generations with very close relatives are affected by tumors.
Another characteristic that defines the genetic susceptibility is that cancer can appear synchronously in several points of the same organ, which is called multicentricity; and in double organs as it is the case of the breast being diagnosed in both breasts synchronously or metachronously, which is called bilaterality.
There are different pictures of genetic predisposition to cancer, but in each specific subgroup, the tumors found in affected relatives are always of the same type: all cases with breast cancer / ovarian, or colon cancer and related, thyroid cancer or melanoma, ...
However, the most important thing to do if you suspect that a picture of this kind is to contact a reference center specialized in this type of pathology.
First of all, it is important to confirm if it is really a genetic susceptibility to cancer and, in this case, to identify which healthy members of the family carry a genetic alteration in order to introduce them into very intensive monitoring programs as well as to offer them the possibility of entering into clinical trials with drugs whose aim is to try to prevent the development of the tumor.
Susceptibility to cancer
On some occasions, this first genetic alteration that constitutes a latent risk situation can be transmitted by the parents and be present from the very moment of conception.
We are, therefore, dealing with an individual who is born with an inherited predisposition to cancer, which will be of one type or another depending on the genetic target in which the inherited alteration has occurred.
In this way, alterations in specific genes have been described which, when inherited, lead to an inherited predisposition to a certain cancer: BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and greater susceptibility to the development of breast and ovarian cancer; MLH1, MSH6 and MSH2 which confer a risk of developing non-polyposis colon cancer; RET gene and medullary thyroid cancer; CDH1 gene and diffuse gastric cancer; RB1 gene and retinoblastoma, etc.
It is very important to make clear that cases of cancer where the cause of its development may be in a genetic alteration inherited from the parents constitute between 5% and 10% of the total tumors.
That is, the vast majority of tumors are not inherited but sporadic: there will be genetic alterations acquired at a particular time of life that will occur in certain cells of the body but in no case will this abnormality be present from birth. These tumors, therefore, have not been inherited and will not be transmitted to children.
Where do we do it?
IN NAVARRE AND MADRID
The Genomic Medicine Unit
at the Clínica Universidad de Navarra
The Genomic Medicine Unit of the Clinica Universidad de Navarra has extensive experience in performing genetic analyses for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.
Our experts advise the patient on whether or not it is necessary to carry out a genetic study.
We provide patients with their genetic results in the most truthful and precise manner and explain the implications for their families. In addition, we offer any other information that may be of interest to them and resolve any doubts that may arise.
Genome sequencing and interpretation
- More comprehensive preventive genetic testing for the healthy patient.
- Genome sequencing.
- Analysis of genes related to potentially treatable diseases.
- The sequenced complete genome information will always be available so, as science advances, we will have the possibility to identify new genetic variants.
Why at the Clinica?
You will discover your predisposition to suffer from more than 650 diseases in the following categories:
- Cardiovascular diseases.
- Susceptibility to cancer.
- Neurological disorders.
- Coagulation disorders.
- Endocrine and metabolic disorders.
- Mitochondrial diseases.
- Disorders of the immune system.