Smell-taste dysfunctions in extreme weight/eating conditions: analysis of hormonal and psychological interactions
Fernández-Aranda F (1,2,3), Agüera Z (4,5), Fernández-García JC (5,6), Garrido-Sanchez L (5,6), Alcaide-Torres J (6), Tinahones FJ (5,6), Giner-Bartolomé C (4,5), Baños RM (5,7), Botella C (5,8), Cebolla A (5,8), de la Torre R (5,9,10), Fernández-Real JM (5,11), Ortega FJ (5,11), Frühbeck G (5,12), Gómez-Ambrosi J (5,12), Granero R (5,13), Islam MA (4,5), Jiménez-Murcia S (4,5,14), Tárrega S (13), Menchón JM (4,14,15), Fagundo AB (4,5), Sancho C (4), Estivill X (16,17), Treasure J (18), Casanueva FF (19,20).
(1) The objective of this study is to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females in extreme weight/eating conditions (EWC) and (2) to explore the interaction between smell/taste capacity, gastric hormones, eating behavior and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprised 239 females in EWC [64 Anorexia nervosa (AN) and 80 age-matched healthy-weight controls, and 59 obese and 36 age-matched healthy-weight controls]. Smell and taste assessments were performed through "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips," respectively.
The assessment measures included the eating disorders inventory-2, the symptom check list 90-revised, and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, as well as peptides from the gastrointestinal tract [Ghrelin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin]. Smell capacity was differentially associated across EWC groups.
Smell was clearly impaired in obese participants and increased in AN (hyposmia in Obesity was 54.3 and 6.4 % in AN), but taste capacity did not vary across EWC. Ghrelin levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects and were related to smell impairment.
EWC individuals showed a distinct smell profile and circulating ghrelin levels compared to controls. Smell capacity and ghrelin may act as moderators of emotional eating and BMI.
CITA DEL ARTÍCULO Endocrine. 2016 Feb;51(2):256-67. doi: 10.1007/s12020-015-0684-9. Epub 2015 Jul 22.