Publicaciones científicas

Prediction of effective humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in healthy subjects by cortical thickness of post-vaccination reactive lymphadenopathy

05-may-2023 | Revista: European Radiology

Alba Cristina Igual-Rouilleault  1 , Ignacio Soriano  2 , Paola Leonor Quan  3 , Gabriel Reina  4 , José Luis Del Pozo  5   6 , Álvaro Gónzalez  7 , Leire Fernández-Ciriza  8 , Alejandro Fernández-Montero  9 , Luis Pina  10 , Arlette Elizalde  10

Purpose: To study the association between ultrasound cortical thickness in reactive post-vaccination lymph nodes and the elicited humoral response and to evaluate the performance of cortical thickness as a predictor of vaccine effectiveness in patients with and without a previous history of COVID-19 infection.

Methods: A total of 156 healthy volunteers were recruited and followed prospectively after receiving two COVID-19 vaccination doses using different protocols. Within a week after receiving the second dose, an axillary ultrasound of the ipsilateral vaccinated arm was performed, and serial post-vaccination serologic tests (PVST) were collected. Maximum cortical thickness was chosen as a nodal feature to analyze association with humoral immunity. Total antibodies quantified during consecutive PVST in previously-infected patients and in coronavirus-naïve volunteers were compared (Mann-Whitney U test). The association between hyperplastic-reactive lymph nodes and effective humoral response was studied (odds ratio). The performance of cortical thickness in detecting vaccination effectiveness was evaluated (area under the ROC curve).

Results: Significantly higher values for total antibodies were observed in volunteers with a previous history of COVID-19 infection (p < 0.001). The odds ratio associating immunized coronavirus-naïve volunteers after 90 and 180 days of the second dose with a cortical thickness ≥ 3 mm was statistically significant (95% CI 1.52-6.97 and 95% CI 1.47-7.29, respectively). The best AUC result was obtained comparing antibody secretion of coronavirus-naïve volunteers at 180 days (0.738).

Conclusions: Ultrasound cortical thickness of reactive lymph nodes in coronavirus-naïve patients may reflect antibody production and a long-term effective humoral response elicited by vaccination.

Clinical relevance statement: In coronavirus-naïve patients, ultrasound cortical thickness of post-vaccination reactive lymphadenopathy shows a positive association with protective antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2, especially in the long term, providing new insights into previous publications. 

CITA DEL ARTÍCULO  Eur Radiol. 2023 May 5;1-8. doi: 10.1007/s00330-023-09662-5