Precision nutrition in the context of bariatric surgery
Maite Aguas-Ayesa 1 2 , Patricia Yárnoz-Esquíroz 3 4 , Laura Olazarán 3 4 , Javier Gómez-Ambrosi 4 5 6 , Gema Frühbeck 7 8 9 10
Bariatric surgery (BS) is the most effective long-term treatment for severe obesity. This review summarizes the main nutritional deficiencies before and after BS, as well as current dietary and supplementation recommendations to avoid them.
Likewise, we have reviewed all those aspects that in recent years have been shown to be related to postoperative weight loss (WL) and its subsequent maintenance, such as hormonal changes, dietary patterns, changes in food preference, adherence to recommendations and follow-up, genetic factors and microbiota, among others. Despite all the knowledge, nutritional deficiencies and weight regain after BS are frequent.
It is essential to continue studying in this field in order to establish more precise recommendations according to the individual characteristics of patients. It is also a major objective to understand more deeply the role of the factors involved in WL and its maintenance. This will allow the development of precision treatments and nutrition for patients with obesity, optimizing their benefit after BS.