Publicaciones científicas

Ototoxic and nephrotoxic drugs in neonatal intensive care units: results of a Spanish and Italian survey

16-mar-2024 | Revista: European Journal of Pediatrics

Cristina Arribas #  1 , Nunzia Decembrino #  2 , Genny Raffaeli  3 , Ilaria Amodeo  4 , Juan Luis González-Caballero  5 , Mónica Riaza  6 , Roberto Ortiz-Movilla  7 , Luca Massenzi  8 , Camilla Gizzi  9 , Gabriella Araimo  4 , Donatella Cattarelli  10 , Salvatore Aversa  11 , Stefano Martinelli  12 , Simonetta Frezza  13 , Luigi Orfeo  14 , Fabio Mosca  4   15 , Giacomo Cavallaro  4 , Felipe Garrido #  1 ; Segurneo Committee of the Spanish Neonatal Society (SENeo), the Neonatal Pharmacotherapy Study Group, the Neonatal Nephrology Study Group, the Sense Organ Study Group of the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN)

Neonates face heightened susceptibility to drug toxicity, often exposed to off-label medications with dosages extrapolated from adult or pediatric studies. Premature infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) are particularly at risk due to underdeveloped pharmacokinetics and exposure to multiple drugs.

The study aimed to survey commonly used medications with a higher risk of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Spanish and Italian neonatal units. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Italian and Spanish neonatal units using a web-based survey with 43 questions. A modified Delphi method involved experts refining the survey through online consensus. Ethical approval was obtained, and responses were collected from January to July 2023.

The survey covered various aspects, including drug-related ototoxic and nephrotoxic management, hearing screening, and therapeutic drug monitoring. Responses from 131 participants (35.9% from Spain and 64.1% from Italy) revealed awareness of drug toxicity risks. Varied practices were observed in hearing screening protocols, and a high prevalence of ototoxic and nephrotoxic drug use, including aminoglycosides (100%), vancomycin (70.2%), loop diuretics (63.4%), and ibuprofen (62.6%). Discrepancies existed in guideline availability and adherence, with differences between Italy and Spain in therapeutic drug monitoring practices.

Conclusions: The study underscores the need for clinical guidelines and uniform practices in managing ototoxic and nephrotoxic drugs in neonatal units. Awareness is high, but inconsistencies in practices indicate a necessity for standardization, including the implementation of therapeutic drug monitoring and the involvement of clinical pharmacologists. Addressing these issues is crucial for optimizing neonatal care in Southern Europe.

What is known: • Neonates in intensive care face a high risk of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity from drugs like aminoglycosides, vancomycin, loop diuretics, and ibuprofen. • Therapeutic drug monitoring is key for managing these risks, optimizing dosing for efficacy and minimizing side effects.

What is new: • NICUs in Spain and Italy show high drug toxicity awareness but differ in ototoxic/nephrotoxic drug management. • Urgent need for standard guidelines and practices to address nephrotoxic risks from aminoglycosides, vancomycin, loop diuretics, and ibuprofen.

CITA DEL ARTÍCULO  Eur J Pediatr. 2024 Mar 16.  doi: 10.1007/s00431-024-05467-w.