One-stage multiple posterior column osteotomies and fusion and pre-op halo-gravity traction may result in a comparative and safer correction of complex spine deformity than vertebral column resection
Cristina Sacramento-Domínguez 1 , Nguyen Cynthia 2 , Kwadwo Poku Yankey 3 , Henry Osei Tutu 4 , Irene Wulff 5 , Harry Akoto 6 , Oheneba Boachie-Adjei 3 , FOCOS SPINE RESEARCH GROUP
Study design: A retrospective review of prospectively collected from patients recruited at a single center.
Purpose: To test whether safe and optimal correction can be obtained with preoperative halo-gravity traction and posterior spinal fusion with adjunctive procedures but without VCR. Posterior vertebral column resection(VCR) is gaining popularity for correction of severe spinal deformity. However, it is a highly technically demanding procedure with potential risk for complications and neurological injury.
Methods: In total, 72 patients with severe spinal deformity (Cobb angle > 100º) who underwent HGT followed by definitive PSF with PCO, with or without concave rib osteotomy and thoracoplasty. Demographic and surgical data were collected. Conventional coronal and sagittal radiographic measurements were obtained pre-traction, post-traction, post-op and at follow-up to determine the final deformity correction.
Postoperative neurological and major complications were reviewed. We used Chi-square to compare proportion between groups and t test to compare groups in quantitative/ordinal variables.
Results: There were 72 patients (35 females, 37 males). The etiology was congenital (21),idiopathic (45), neurofibromatosis (2) and neuromuscular (4). The mean was: age 18 ± 4.6 years; duration of HGT 103 ± 35 days; coronal Cobb angle before traction 131.5 ± 21.4º vs 92. ± 15.9º after HGT (30% correction) and 72.8 ± 12.7º after fusion (47% correction); kyphosis angle before traction 134.7 ± 32.3º vs 97.1 ± 22.4º after HGT and 73.7 ± 21.3º post-fusion. Number of fusion levels 14 ± 1; EBL 1730 ± 744 cc; number of PCOs done 5 ± 2; number of concave rib osteotomies (2 ± 2). There were 16 patients with postoperative complications (22.2%), 10 medical, one wound infection, 2 implant related and 3 post-op neuro-deficits (all of whom recovered at follow-up). There was one death (cardiac arrest).
Conclusion: HGT and one-stage posterior fusion with PCO, with or without concave rib resection and thoracoplasty, without VCR, achieved satisfactory correction of rigid complex spine deformity with minimal neurological complications. The results compare favorably with previous reports of similar deformities treated with VCR.