Oncogenes in Cancer: Using the Problem as Part of the Solution
Ignacio Gil-Bazo 1 2 3 4
(1) Department of Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain.
(2) Program of Solid Tumors, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain.
(3) IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, 31008 Pamplona, Spain.
(4) Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), 28029 Madrid, Spain.
Human cancer is considered to have a multifactorial origin. The exposure to certain environmental, occupational or social carcinogens such as ultraviolet irradiation , asbestos [2,3], radon  or tobacco , among others, is well documented to increase the individual risk of developing a number of neoplasms. In addition, a growing concern is infection by specific viruses (EBV , VIH , HPV , HCV …) as other sources of cancer-related factors.
However, human malignancies have also been considered a genomic condition . In fact, genome instability and mutations are one of the well-recognized hallmarks of cancer . More specifically, a large number of hereditary cancer syndromes can cause a higher individual predisposition to develop cancer . Most of these syndromes are generated by germline mutations in cancer suppressor genes, and they may cause the appearance of different tumor types. Overall, it is estimated that up to 10% of all new cancer cases are attributed to inherited genetic alterations .
CITA DEL ARTÍCULO Cancers (Basel). 2020 Nov 14;12(11):E3373. doi: 10.3390/cancers12113373