Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers for chronic kidney disease: a position paper from the European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action PARENCHIMA
Selby NM (1), Blankestijn PJ (2), Boor P (3), Combe C (4), Eckardt KU (5), Eikefjord E (6), Garcia-Fernandez N (7), Golay X (8), Gordon I (9), Grenier N (10), Hockings PD (11), Jensen JD (12), Joles JA (2), Kalra PA (13), Krämer BK (14), Mark PB (15), Mendichovszky IA (16), Nikolic O (17), Odudu A (18), Ong ACM (19), Ortiz A (20), Pruijm M (21), Remuzzi G (22), Rørvik J (23,24), de Seigneux S (25), Simms RJ (19), Slatinska J (26), Summers P (27,28), Taal MW (1), Thoeny HC (29,30), Vallée JP (31), Wolf M (32), Caroli A (22), Sourbron S (33).
(1) Centre for Kidney Research and Innovation, University of Nottingham, UK.
(2) Nephrology and Hypertension, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
(3) Institute of Pathology and Department of Nephrology, RWTH University, Aachen, Germany.
(4) Service de Néphrologie Transplantation Dialyse Aphérèse, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
(5) Department of Nephrology and Medical Intensive Care, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
(6) Department of Health and Functioning, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
(7) Service of Nephrology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
(8) Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK.
(9) Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.
(10) Service d'Imagerie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle de l'Adulte, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux Place Amelie Raba-Leon, Bordeaux, France.
(11) Antaros Medical, BioVenture Hub, Mölndal, Sweden.
(12) Departments of Renal and Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
(13) Department of Renal Medicine, Salford Royal Hospital and Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
(14) Vth Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
(15) Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
(16) Department of Radiology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK.
(17) Faculty of Medicine,University of Novi Sad, Center of Radiology, Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, Serbia.
(18) Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
(19) Academic Nephrology Unit, Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, UK.
(20) Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain.
(21) Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.
(22) IRCCS Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy.
(23) Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
(24) Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
(25) Service of Nephrology, Department of Medicine Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
(26) Department of Nephrology, Transplant Centre, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.
(27) Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Radiology Division, European Institute of Oncology (IEO), Milan, Italy.
(28) QMRI Tech iSrl, Piazza dei Martiri Pennesi 20, Pescara, Italy.
(29) University of Bern, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland.
(30) HFR Fribourg, Hôpital Cantonal, Fribourg, Switzerland.
(31) Radiology Department, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
(32) Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, MR-Centre of Excellence, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
(33) Leeds Imaging Biomarkers Group, Department of Biomedical Imaging Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
Functional renal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has seen a number of recent advances, and techniques are now available that can generate quantitative imaging biomarkers with the potential to improve the management of kidney disease.
Such biomarkers are sensitive to changes in renal blood flow, tissue perfusion, oxygenation and microstructure (including inflammation and fibrosis), processes that are important in a range of renal diseases including chronic kidney disease.
However, several challenges remain to move these techniques towards clinical adoption, from technical validation through biological and clinical validation, to demonstration of cost-effectiveness and regulatory qualification. To address these challenges, the European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action PARENCHIMA was initiated in early 2017. PARENCHIMA is a multidisciplinary pan-European network with an overarching aim of eliminating the main barriers to the broader evaluation, commercial exploitation and clinical use of renal MRI biomarkers.
This position paper lays out PARENCHIMA's vision on key clinical questions that MRI must address to become more widely used in patients with kidney disease, first within research settings and ultimately in clinical practice. We then present a series of practical recommendations to accelerate the study and translation of these techniques.
CITA DEL ARTÍCULO Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2018 Sep 1;33(suppl_2):ii4-ii14. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy152