Lenalidomide-dexamethasone versus observation in high-risk smoldering myeloma after 12 years of median follow-up time: A randomized, open-label study
María-Victoria Mateos 1 , Miguel-Teodoro Hernández 2 , Carlos Salvador 3 , Javier de la Rubia 4 , Felipe de Arriba 5 , Lucía López-Corral 6 , Laura Rosiñol 7 , Bruno Paiva 8 , Luis Palomera 9 , Joan Bargay 10 , Albert Oriol 11 , Felipe Prosper 8 , Javier López 12 , José-María Arguiñano 13 , Joan Bladé 7 , Juan-José Lahuerta 14 , Jesús San-Miguel 8
Background: Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is a heterogeneous disease in terms of progression to myeloma (MM), but its standard of care continues to be observation.
Methods: The QuiRedex phase 3 trial initiated in 2007 included 119 high-risk patients with SMM randomized to treatment or observation. Treatment consisted of nine 4-week induction cycles (lenalidomide [Rd], 25 mg on days 1-21 plus dexamethasone, 20 mg on days 1-4 and 12-15), followed by maintenance (R, 10 mg on days 1-21) for up to 2 years. The primary end-point was time to progression (TTP) to myeloma based on per protocol population. Secondary end-points were overall survival (OS), response rate, and safety. An update of the trial after a long-term follow-up is presented here. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00480363).
Findings: After a median follow-up time of 12.5 years (range: 10.4-13.6), the median TTP to MM was 2.1 years in the observation arm and 9.5 years in the Rd arm (HR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.18-0.44, p < 0.0001). The median OS was 8.5 years in the abstention arm and not reached in the Rd group (HR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.95, p = 0.032). Patients who progressed received optimized treatments according to the standards of care, and the OS from progression was comparable in both arms (p = 0.96).
Interpretation: This analysis confirms that early treatment with Rd for high-risk SMM translates into a sustained benefit in both TTP and OS.
Funding: Pethema (Spanish Program for the Treatment of Hematologic Diseases), Spain.