External Validation and Clinical Applicability of Two Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Risk Calculators for Detecting Glaucoma
Néstor Ventura-Abreu 1 , Marc Biarnés 2 , Sofia Batlle-Ferrando 1 , María Teresa Carrión-Donderis 1 , Rafael Castro-Domínguez 1 , María Jesús Muniesa 1 , Elena Millá 1 , Javier Moreno-Montañés 3 , Marta Pazos 1
Purpose: To clinically validate the diagnostic ability of two optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based glaucoma diagnostic calculators (GDCs).
Methods: We conducted a retrospective, consecutive sampling of 76 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, 107 glaucoma suspects, and 67 controls. Demographics, reliable visual field testing, and macular and optic disc OCT were collected. The reference diagnosis was compared against the probability of having glaucoma obtained from two GDCs derived from multivariate logistic regressions using quantitative and qualitative (GDC1) or only quantitative (GDC2) OCT data. The discrimination (area under the curve [AUC]) and calibration (calibration plots) were compared for both calculators and the best OCT parameters.
Results: GDC2 was able to identify 46.9% more suspects and 14.7% more glaucomatous eyes than GDC1. Both GDCs obtained the highest discriminative ability in glaucomatous eyes (GDC1 AUC = 0.949; GDC2 = 0.943 vs inferior peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer [pRNFL] = 0.931; P = 0.43). The discriminating ability was not as good for glaucoma suspects, but the GDCs were not inferior to pRNFL (GDC 1 AUC = 0.739; GDC2 = 0.730; inferior pRNFL = 0.760; P = 0.54) and GDC2 was still able to correctly identify up to 30.8% more cases than the conventional OCT classification. Calibration showed risk underestimation for both groups and calculators, but it was better in GDC2 and in patients with glaucoma.
Conclusions: OCT-based calculators showed an excellent diagnostic performance in glaucomatous eyes. GDC2 was able to identify approximately 30% more cases than the conventional pRNFL inferior OCT classification in both groups, suggesting a potential role of these composite scores in clinical practice.
Translational relevance: These OCT-based calculators may improve glaucoma diagnosis in clinical care.