Exploratory dietary patterns and cognitive function in the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) Prospective Cohort
M I Muñoz-García 1 2 , M A Martínez-González 1 3 4 , C Razquin 1 3 , M Fernández-Matarrubia 1 5 , F Guillén-Grima 1 5 6 , E Toledo 7 8
Background: Dementia is projected to affect 135 million by 2050. Diet is a pertinent target for primary prevention, but firm recommendations for dementia prevention are not available yet. Our aim was to address the association between exploratory (empirically derived) dietary patterns (DP) and changes in the Spanish Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (STICS-m, maximum score = 41 points) over 6 years.
Method: Information on diet was collected with a validated 136-item food-frequency questionnaire from 803 participants in the Mediterranean cohort "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra." We used principal component analysis to derive exploratory DP. The derived DP were associated with change in STICS-m scores over 6 years, through adjusted multiple linear regression models.
Results: Two main DP were identified. The first DP resembled a Western dietary pattern (WDP)-high in sugar, fat, processed foods, and red meat-and the second DP resembled a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP)-high in vegetables, fruits, nuts, fish, and olive oil. Adherence to the WDP (tertile 3 vs tertile 1) was significantly associated with negative STICS-m changes after 6 years (between-tertile difference in changes: -0.80 points; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.51, -0.08, p value = 0.03). Meanwhile, the MDP showed a positive +0.71 point (95% CI 0.15, 1.26, p value = 0.01) between-tertile difference in changes in the STICS-m score.
Conclusions: A healthy, prudent, MDP was associated with less decline in cognitive function and, thus, could help to lower dementia incidence. Western-type diets were associated with a greater decline in cognitive performance and could increase dementia incidence.
CITA DEL ARTÍCULO Eur J Clin Nutr. 2022 Jan;76(1):48-55. doi: 10.1038/s41430-021-00922-5. Epub 2021 May 13