Development of intranasal implantable devices for schizophrenia treatment
Emilia Utomo 1 , Juan Domínguez-Robles 1 , Natalia Moreno-Castellanos 2 , Sarah A Stewart 1 , Camila Picco 1 , Qonita Kurnia Anjani 3 , Jon Ander Simón 4 , Iván Peñuelas 4 , Ryan F Donnelly 1 , Eneko Larrañeta 5
In this work the preparation and characterisation of intranasal implants for the delivery of risperidone (RIS) is described. The aim of this work is to develop better therapies to treat chronic conditions affecting the brain such as schizophrenia.
This type of systems combines the advantages of intranasal drug delivery with sustained drug release. The resulting implants were prepared using biodegradable materials, including poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA).
These polymers were combined with water-soluble compounds, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 600, PEG 3000, and Tween® 80 using a solvent-casting method. The resulting implants contained RIS loadings ranging between 25 and 50%.
The obtained implants were characterised using a range of techniques including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Moreover, in vitro RIS release was evaluated showing that the addition of water-soluble compounds exhibited significant faster release profiles compared to pristine PCL and PLGA-based implants. Interestingly, PCL-based implants containing 25% of RIS and PLGA-based implants loaded with 50% of RIS showed sustained drug release profiles up to 90 days. The former showed faster release rates over the first 28 days but after this period PLGA implants presented higher release rates.
The permeability of RIS released from the implants through a model membrane simulating nasal mucosa was subsequently evaluated showing desirable permeation rate of around 2 mg/day.
Finally, following in vitro biocompatibility studies, PCL and PLGA-based implants showed acceptable biocompatibility. These results suggested that the resulting implants displayed potential of providing prolonged drug release for brain-targeting drugs.