Cystoscopy Real-Time Self-Visualization and Its Impact in Patient's Pain Perception
Daniel A González-Padilla 1 , Alejandro González-Díaz 1 , Borja García-Gómez 1 , Felipe Villacampa-Aubá 2 , Natalia Miranda-Utrera 1 , Alfredo Rodríguez-Antolín 1 , Félix Guerrero-Ramos 1
Objectives: To determine if self-visualization of ambulatory cystoscopy provides a decrease in pain perception in male and female patients.
Methods: A quasi-randomized controlled trial involving patients scheduled for ambulatory cystoscopy from August to November 2017. The indications were: hematuria, bladder cancer surveillance, lower urinary tract symptoms, and incontinence. The patients were quasi-randomized into two groups by scheduled date. Both groups received the same explanation before and during cystoscopy. The variables analyzed were gender, age, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, number of previous cystoscopies, and indication and positivity of the test for bladder neoplasia. All patients were analyzed by group and gender separately. The statistical tests used were: Wilcoxon rank-sum, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson correlation, and linear regression.
Results: Four hundred four patients were included (318 males and 86 females) and divided into two groups, group A (no self-visualization, n = 239) and group B (self-visualization, n = 165). In males, mean VAS score was 2.6 for group A and 2.5 for group B (p = 0.276); in females, VAS score was 2.78 for group A and 1.64 for group B (p = 0.008). Regarding the remaining variables analyzed, neither positivity of the test for neoplasia (p = 0.14) nor cystoscopy indication (p = 0.597) had any influence. In patients with two or more previous cystoscopies, a reduction in mean VAS score was seen in both genders. In males having their first cystoscopy the mean VAS score was 3.1 and decreased to 2.1 for the third or more (p = 0.001); in females the mean VAS score was 2.89 for the first and 1.56 for the third or more (p = 0.02), although this benefit tended to disappear when the number of previous cystoscopies was taken into account.
Conclusion: In male patients, self-visualization of cystoscopy did not impact pain perception, while in female patients, it seemed to provide a benefit. The number of previous cystoscopies had an influence, diminishing the perception of pain, regardless of whether the patient visualized the procedure or not.