Publicaciones científicas

BMI-based obesity classification misses children and adolescents with raised cardiometabolic risk due to increased adiposity

04-sep-2023 | Revista: Cardiovascular Diabetology

J Karina Zapata  1 , M Cristina Azcona-Sanjulian  2   3 , Victoria Catalán  3   4   5 , Beatriz Ramírez  3   4   5 , Camilo Silva  1   3   5 , Amaia Rodríguez  3   4   5 , Javier Escalada  1   3   5 , Gema Frühbeck  6   7   8   9 , Javier Gómez-Ambrosi  10   11   12

Objective: To assess how inaccurately the body mass index (BMI) is used to diagnose obesity compared to body fat percentage (BF%) measurement and to compare the cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents with or without obesity according to BMI but with a similar BF%.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional investigation was conducted including 553 (378 females/175 males) white children and adolescents aged 6-17 years, 197 with normal weight (NW), 144 with overweight (OW) and 212 with obesity (OB) according to BMI. In addition to BMI, BF% measured by air displacement plethysmography, as well as markers of cardiometabolic risk had been determined in the existing cohort.

Results: We found that 7% of subjects considered as NW and 62% of children and adolescents classified as OW according to BMI presented a BF% within the obesity range. Children and adolescents without obesity by the BMI criterion but with obesity by BF% exhibited higher blood pressure and C-reactive protein (CRP) in boys, and higher blood pressure, glucose, uric acid, CRP and white blood cells count, as well as reduced HDL-cholesterol, in girls, similar to those with obesity by BMI and BF%. Importantly, both groups of subjects with obesity by BF% showed a similarly altered glucose homeostasis after an OGTT as compared to their NW counterparts.

Conclusions: Results from the present study suggest increased cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents without obesity according to BMI but with obesity based on BF%. Being aware of the difficulty in determining body composition in everyday clinical practice, our data show that its inclusion could yield clinically useful information both for the diagnosis and treatment of overweight and obesity.

CITA DEL ARTÍCULO  Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023 Sep 4;22(1):240. doi: 10.1186/s12933-023-01972-8