Irreversible electroporation: present and future in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma
David Cano 1 , Juan José Lasarte 2 , Isabel Vivas 3
Currently, among the possible treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma there is group of minimally invasive ablation techniques with wide clinical ac-ceptance due to their greater efficacy and safety in comparison to traditional therapies, low cost, and no need of being admitted to hospital (outpatient treatment program).
Irreversible electroporation is a non-thermal abla-tion technique in which electrical fields are used to create nanopores in the cell membrane that induce tumor cell death. Irreversible electroporation has shown promising results in numerous clinical trials; however, its control on long-term tumor growth and recurrence is inferior in comparison to that of radiofrequency.
Combining irreversible electroporation with immunological agents may increase its efficacy in the treatment of focal lesions and metastases.
In this work, we present an update on IRE including procedure, mechanism of action, application as a treatment for HCC, and the improvements that have been made in the past few years.