Prevention of Cardiorenal Complications with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter Type 2 Inhibitors: A Narrative Review
Manuel Botana # 1 , Javier Escalada # 2 3 , Ángel Merchante # 4 , Rebeca Reyes # 5 , Pedro Rozas # 6
Heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are the most frequent first cardiorenal conditions in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), which can be exacerbated by other comorbidities, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity.
To improve their clinical outcomes, patients with T2D need to achieve and maintain glycemic targets, as well as prevent cardiorenal disease onset and progression. Several clinical trials evaluating the sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, canagliflozin, and ertugliflozin have shown consistent risk reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events and/or hospitalization for HF, together with lower risk of kidney disease progression.
The benefits associated with SGLT2i in T2D are distinct from other antihyperglycemic drugs since they have been proposed to exert pleiotropic metabolic and direct effects on the kidney and the heart. In this review, we summarize and discuss the evidence regarding the mechanisms of action, the efficacy and safety profiles, and the clinical guidelines on the use of the therapeutic class of SGLT2i, highlighting their role in cardiorenal prevention beyond glycemic control.