Liver transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing colorectal adenomas: Results from a retrospective study
José Ignacio Herrero 1 2 3 , Marta Quiñones 1 , Xabier Pérez 1 , Lorena Mora 4 , Alejandro Bojórquez 5 , Estefanía Toledo 2 6 7 , Maite Betés 2 5
Background: Liver transplant recipients have an increased incidence of malignancies, but it is unclear whether they have a higher risk of colorectal cancer.
Aim: To investigate whether liver transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing colorectal adenomas (a surrogate marker of colorectal cancer risk).
Patients and methods: One hundred thirty-nine liver transplant recipients (excluding primary sclerosing cholangitis) who underwent a colonoscopy and polypectomy before and after transplantation, and 367 nontransplanted patients who underwent a colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening and a second colonoscopy later were retrospectively studied. The risks of incident colorectal adenomas and high-risk adenomas (advanced or multiple adenomas or carcinomas) were compared between both cohorts.
Results: Incident colorectal adenomas were found in 40.3% of the transplanted patients and 30.0% of the nontransplanted patients (15.1% and 5.5%, respectively, had high-risk adenomas). After adjusting for age, sex, presence of adenomas in the baseline endoscopy, and interval between colonoscopies, transplant recipients showed a higher risk of developing colorectal adenomas (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.05-2.47; p = .03) and high-risk adenomas (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.46-5.65; p = .002).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that liver transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing colorectal adenomas and lesions with high risk of colorectal cancer.