Treatment Patterns and Outcomes in Triple-Class Exposed Patients With Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Findings From the Multinational ITEMISE Study
Sujith Dhanasiri 1 , Georgia Hollier-Hann 2 , Catherine Stothard 2 , Devender S Dhanda 3 , Faith E Davies 4 , Paula Rodriguez-Otero 5
Purpose: Patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options after exposure to an immunomodulatory drug, proteasome inhibitor (PI), and anti-CD38 antibody (triple-class exposure [TCE]).
However, current understanding about the management of these patients and associated health care resource use (HCRU) is limited outside the United States. The objective of the International Treatment pattern and resource use Evaluation for Multiple myeloma In a Study of triple-class Exposed patients (ITEMISE) study was to use a physician-developed survey fielded to hematologists across Europe and Canada to assess the treatment, management, HCRU, and end-of-life care for patients with RRMM after TCE.
Methods: The ITEMISE study used a 3-phase Delphi-like approach that consisted of in-depth interviews with 7 hematology experts; the development of a cross-sectional survey fielded to hematologists across Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom from August to October 2020; and a final workshop of hematology experts to validate the pooled findings.
Hematologists were asked to consider the management of patients in the first 3 treatment lines after TCE, including treatment options, treatment duration and outcomes, and frequency of outpatient visits and hospitalizations.
Findings: The survey was completed by 202 hematologists (60% from academic hospitals, 38% from other public hospitals, and 2% from private hospitals). Hematologists estimated that 55% of patients would receive active treatment after TCE, the equivalent of fourth-line treatment onward since diagnosis of multiple myeloma.
Immunomodulatory drug, anti-CD38 antibody plus immunomodulatory drug, and PI-based regimens (received by 22.5%, 17.8%, and 15.1% of patients, respectively) were reported for first treatment strategy after TCE. Pomalidomide, daratumumab, lenalidomide, bortezomib, and carfilzomib were the most frequently selected antimyeloma agents.
Associated outcomes of median overall survival, progression-free survival, and objective response rate for first treatment after TCE were estimated as 12 months, 4 months, and 40%, respectively. HCRU included outpatient visits and unplanned hospitalizations that were commonly reported during treatment after TCE.
Implications: Findings indicate an intent to actively treat patients after TCE with a range of combination regimens frequently consisting of immunomodulatory drugs, PIs, and anti-CD38 antibodies, highlighting the lack of standard of care and suggesting a large clinical unmet need.
Estimated clinical outcomes are consistent with data from US studies and indicate the poor prognosis for patients after TCE. Substantial HCRU is associated with management of patients after TCE across Europe and Canada, signifying a high patient and societal impact and a need for better treatment options to reduce this burden.