Influence of the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy in the development of wheezing and eczema in infants in Pamplona, Spain.
Alvarez Zallo N (1), Aguinaga-Ontoso I (2), Alvarez-Alvarez I (2), Marin-Fernandez B (2), Guillén-Grima F (3), Azcona-San Julián C (4).
This study examined the relationship between different food groups and the adherence to a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and the risk of wheezing and eczema in children aged 12-15 months.
The study involves 1087 Spanish infants from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL). The study of the association of the different food consumption and Mediterranean diet with wheezing, recurrent wheezing and eczema was performed using different models of unconditional logistic regression to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
No association was found between a good adherence to the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and the development of wheezing (p=0.372), recurrent wheezing (p=0.118) and eczema (p=0.315). The consumption once or twice a week of white fish (OR: 1.95[1.01-3.75]), cooked potatoes (OR: 1.75[1.22-2.51]) and industrial pastry (OR: 1.59[1.13-2.24]), and the consumption more than three times a week of industrial pastry (OR: 1.47 [1.01-2.13]) during pregnancy increases the risk of "wheezing" at 12 months. Instead, high fruit consumption during the pregnancy has a protective effect against "wheezing" in 12-month-old infants (OR: 0.44 [0.20-0.99]). No statistically significant differences were observed between food intake during pregnancy and "recurrent wheezing". No statistically significant differences were observed between the consumption of any food during pregnancy and the presence of eczema at 12 months.
The present study showed that the consumption of Mediterranean diet during pregnancy did not have a protective effect for wheezing, recurrent wheezing or eczema.