Breath-Hold Induced Cerebrovascular Reactivity Measurements Using Optimized Pseudocontinuous Arterial Spin Labeling
Sergio M Solis-Barquero 1 , Rebeca Echeverria-Chasco 1 2 , Marta Calvo-Imirizaldu 1 , Elena Cacho-Asenjo 3 , Antonio Martinez-Simon 3 , Marta Vidorreta 4 , Pablo D Dominguez 1 2 , Reyes García de Eulate 1 , Miguel Fernandez-Martinez 1 , María A Fernández-Seara 1 2
A pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) sequence combined with background suppression and single-shot accelerated 3D RARE stack-of-spirals was used to evaluate cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) induced by breath-holding (BH) in ten healthy volunteers.
Four different models designed using the measured change in PETCO2 induced by BH were compared, for CVR quantification. The objective of this comparison was to understand which regressor offered a better physiological model to characterize the cerebral blood flow response under BH.
The BH task started with free breathing of 42 s, followed by interleaved end-expiration BHs of 21 s, for ten cycles. The total scan time was 12 min and 20 s. The accelerated readout allowed the acquisition of PCASL data with better temporal resolution than previously used, without compromising the post-labeling delay.
Elevated CBF was observed in most cerebral regions under hypercapnia, which was delayed with respect to the BH challenge. Significant statistical differences in CVR were obtained between the different models in GM (p < 0.0001), with ramp models yielding higher values than boxcar models and between the two tissues, GM and WM, with higher values in GM, in all the models (p < 0.0001).
The adjustment of the ramp amplitude during each BH cycle did not improve the results compared with a ramp model with a constant amplitude equal to the mean PETCO2 change during the experiment.