BEAM chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell support in lymphoma patients: analysis of efficacy, toxicity and prognostic factors
Caballero MD, Rubio V, Rifon J, Heras I, García-Sanz R, Vázquez L, Vidriales B, del Cañizo MC, Corral M, Gonzalez M, León A, Jean-Paul E, Rocha E, Moraleda JM, San Miguel JF.
Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitario Salamanca, Spain.
Magazine: Bone Marrrow Transplantation
Date: Sep 1, 1997Haematology and Hameotherapy
In the present paper, we evaluate tolerability, outcome and prognostic factors in patients with poor prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's disease (HD) when uniformly treated with BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (BEAM) and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). On hundred and forty-eight patients with NHL (n = 112) or HD (n = 36) received BEAM followed by infusion of bone marrow (n = 55), peripheral blood stem cells (n = 79) or both (n = 14).
Twenty-eight patients had low-grade lymphoma (LGL), 68 intermediate- and 16 high-grade lymphoma (IGL). Within the NHL group, 21 patients were in 2nd or subsequent complete remission (CR) at transplant, 34 had sensitive disease and 11 resistant disease; 46 patients were transplanted in 1st CR due to the presence of > or = 2 adverse prognostic features at diagnosis or to a slow CR. Of the HD patients at transplant 17 had active disease, 16 were in > or = 2 CR and three in 1st CR. The overall percentage of toxic deaths was 5.4%, while in the group of patients transplanted with PBSC it was only 1.3%. NHL patients: 78% were in CR following ASCT, including 25 out of 45 patients (56%) who were transplanted with active disease.
Only two of the 11 patients transplanted with resistant disease achieved CR. Incidence of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 3 years was 65 and 75%, respectively. As far as histology was concerned, OS was significantly better for patients with LGL in comparison with IGL (88 vs 56%) (P = 0.002).
DFS was significantly higher for patients transplanted in first CR or first partial remission (PR) than it was for those transplanted in a later CR or PR (86 vs 53%) (P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis for OS showed that histology, bulky disease, poor performance status at transplant and achievement of CR were independent prognostic factors. In addition, a high number of infused MNC was associated with poor DFS. HD patients: 30 (83%) were in CR after transplantation, with 25 maintaining CR at the end of the study. Only one of the four patients transplanted with resistant disease reached CR.
Incidence of OS and DFS at 3 years was 78 and 81%. DFS was similar for patients transplanted with early or late relapse (95 and 93%). With multivariate analysis, the only independent variable for OS was CR after transplant. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate the efficacy and low toxicity of the BEAM regimen in high-risk lymphoma patients with sensitive disease. Other strategies should be investigated for patients with refractory lymphoma.
CITATION Bone Marrow Transplant. 1997 Sep;20(6):451-8
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