For External Radiotherapy, we systematically use stereotactic and modulated intensity radiotherapy, for the majority of tumours.

We use conventional treatment techniques – external radiotherapy and external 3D conformed radiotherapy -, as well as special procedures – 3D external radiation, modulated external radiotherapy and, as previously mentioned, stereotactic radiotherapy (radiosurgery and extracerebral stereotactic radiotherapy).

For external radiotherapy, specialists use ionised beams of radiation (electromagnetic waves) generated by radiation equipment positioned far away from and externally to the patient (linear accelerators). 


Imagen con los pasos que hay que dar para solicitar una segunda opinión en la Clínica Universidad de Navarra

If you require the opinion of our experts without having to travel to the Clinica, we offer the possibility of a Second Medical Opinion consultation.

RT3D allows specialists to precisely locate the tumour, protecting healthy organs.

The Clínica has vast experience in external 3D conformed radiotherapy. This technique incorporates CT scan technology into the radiation treatment procedure.

Another important advance in the development of the planning of 3D treatments is the complex computer calculation systems the Clínica uses in order to estimate the distribution of the radiation dose.

Therefore, we perform higher quality procedures, as the RT3D spatially distributes the radiation more effectively, adapting itself to the volume and shape of the tumour. This can notably decrease the radiation on surrounding healthy organs and the treatment can be administered to cure the condition without resorting to surgery.

The equipment undergoes a daily quality control test. We have three of the latest linear accelerators and the most recent and advanced planning systems.

The field of radiation for treatment with the conventional RT3D is carried out using a traditional, manual process. Blocks of lead are created and cut manually to give them the necessary form and size according to the tissue or organs that require protection.

Once created and shaped, the blocks are assembled in trays and are positioned to block part of the radiation beam´s path. This interference projects a shadow on the area or tissues that need to be protected. 

Modulated Intensity radiotherapy (IMRT) is the latest generation external radiation treatment.

This procedure is only available in highly specialised oncological treatment centres.

The Clínica Universidad de Navarra is one the pioneering Spanish institutions for this specialised radiation technique, with over 10 years´ experience in the use of the treatment on patients.

This treatment allows specialists to define the field of treatment and to modulate the intensity of the beams of radiation using multi-leaf collimators or controlled multi-sheet depending on the digital treatment plan.

With this technique, each of the predetermined multiple fields is subdivided by the collimator into various segments.

This characteristic and a whole series of sophisticated improvements, such as inverse planning (creating treatment plans according to planned proposals for the dosage levels and restrictions for target tissues and healthy organs) allow us to carry out well defined treatment plans with differentiated distribution maps defining the radiation dosage required for a specific area.

This technique makes it possible to use more intelligent treatments with increased potential and efficiency as we are now able to increase the radiation dosage, whilst safely protecting the patient. 

Stereotactic Radiotherapy is most frequently used for treating brain tumours.

Stereotactic Radiotherapy is a specialised technique for external radiation. It requires special fastening and immobilization systems (stereotactic guides and frameworks) with a 3D coordinated system, which is independent of the patient, and allows specialists to more precisely locate the lesions which require treatment.

Also, this procedure requires radiotherapy generators with well-defined radiation beams (linear accelerators, gammaknife, cyberknife, tomotherapy) which converge, extremely selectively, on the lesion being treated, using high doses of radiation without increasing the radiation on surrounding healthy organs and structures.

Various extremely precise treatment sessions may be required. This procedure is most frequently used for treating brain tumours.

SBRT (Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy) is a low radiation stereotactic treatment for extracerebral lesions. It is possible to treat lesions, such as inoperable lung tumours or hepatic metastasis, in a short period of time with tolerable secondary effects, and just one very high dosage radiation treatment session administered using stereotactic systems in radiosurgery.

This is recommended for malignant or benign lesions which are smaller than 3-4cm (brain metastasis, arteriovenous malformations, neurinomas, meningiomas). 

you maybe interested


Learn why the Clínica Universidad de Navarra is different from other hospitals.

Imagen de una niña pequeña con cáncer por los pasillos de la Clínica


Want to participate in our clinical trials? Learn which ones are active.

Imagen médico investigando con microscopio


Know what we do for our international patients

Entrada principal a la Clínica Universidad de Navarra