Back BREAST reconstruction


Total breast reconstruction is performed for women who have had their entire breast removed to control their breast cancer.

The Clinica Universidad de Navarra has extensive experience in breast reconstruction. Its team of highly specialised surgeons work in conjunction with the Breast Cancer Area to ensure comprehensive treatment for patients with this disease.

There are various techniques, and each has its indications and advantages. The decision on the best time to perform the operation will depend on the plastic surgeon, who will evaluate each patient’s characteristics.


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This is a simple technique that does not require the use of tissues from other parts of the body and therefore decreases the risk of complications.

The procedure is indicated for patients who do not have sufficient skin-fat tissue for the reconstruction with the patient’s own tissue.

This technique comprises two surgical sessions to complete the process of reconstruction:

First surgery: A tissue expander is placed to distend the skin sufficiently to house a prosthesis similar in size to the contralateral breast. This is achieved by using serial saline injections performed in an outpatient setting, without the need for hospitalisation.

Second surgery: The expander is exchanged for the final prosthesis. The necessary procedures will also be performed in the contralateral breast (lift, reduction, augmentation, etc.) to achieve better symmetry between the two breasts.

Patients with breast prostheses should undergo periodic check-ups every 10 years and require follow-ups to prevent possible capsular contracture.


This is a simple technique that does not require the use of tissues from other parts of the body and therefore decreases the risk of complications.

The procedure may be indicated for patients who do not have sufficient skin-fat tissue for the reconstruction with patient tissue.


The technique requires two surgical sessions to complete the reconstruction process, unlike other techniques that only require one.

It requires the use of a prosthesis, a foreign object to the body, which entails an increased possibility of developing capsular contracture and a ruptured implant.

It is not the best procedure for patients who have undergone or will undergo radiation therapy, given the increased rate of prosthetic extrusion and capsular contracture.

This technique consists of recreating the new breast by combining tissue from the patient and a breast implant. The technique is performed in a single surgical act.

After the mastectomy, a portion of latissimus dorsi skin and muscle is implanted in the breast region. Its objective is to repair the skin defect and provide coverage to the new prosthesis in the breast.

Sacrificing the latissimus dorsi generally has no repercussion on the movement of the arm, because the function the muscle performs is supplied by the other muscles.

The technique is performed in a single surgical act.

The procedure leaves a scar on the back measuring approximately 12 cm, which can be easily hidden by a bathing suit.

It requires the placement of a prosthetic, a foreigncomplications such as capsular contracture. 

This reconstruction exclusively uses tissue from the patient herself to recreate the new breast.


  • The results last a lifetime, without the possibility of rejection and without the need for future changes.
  • The technique achieves a more natural appearance, with the consistency and feel of the original tissue.
  • The variation in breast volume depends on the patient’s weight change.
  • Greater tolerance to radiation therapy.
  • Enables a bilateral reconstruction with the same procedure, ensuring symmetry to agreater degree.
  • The tissue is obtained from parts of the body where there is excess skin-fat, which is then transferred to the breast region. This is known as free-flap breast reconstruction and requires microsurgery to ensure vascularisation of the transplanted tissue.

Deep inferior epigastric perforators (DIEP) flap: The breast is reconstructed with skin and fat from the abdominal region, keeping the rectus abdominis muscle intact thanks to the dissection of perforating vessels. To adapt the flap, microsurgery is performed to attach the flap’s blood vessels to the internal breast vessels. After six months, the areola and nipple are reconstructed.

Superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap: As with the DIEP flap, this technique also uses the abdominal region as a skin and fat donor but uses lower superficial epigastric vessels.

Superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flap: This technique extracts excess skin and fat located in the upper gluteus.

Transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap: The Clinic was the first centre in Spain to perform this technique. The flap is formed with skin, fat and gracilis muscle from the inner side of the thigh. This technique is especially indicated for very thin women who do not have an excess of abdominal skin-fat tissue.



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